Soft Deletion in Django

May 9, 2013

Like any self-respecting data nerd, I find deleting database records abhorrent. What happens if I need to resurrect those records later? What if I want to run a survival analysis? Django’s ORM doesn’t offer any out-of-the-box support for soft-deletion, but it’s not difficult to preserve your data by overriding a few methods and flipping a Boolean field instead of actually deleting anything. After living with that system for a while, though, I’m convinced that it’s inadequate; in this post, I’ll explain its principal shortcoming and propose a slightly more complex, but vastly better, alternative. Update: I’ve open-sourced this soft-deletion plug-in as django-livefield. You can install it from PyPI or check out the code on GitHub. Try it out and let me know what you think!

Naive Soft-Deletion

At first blush, soft-deletion seems embarrassingly simple. If you’re like me, a system like this probably springs to mind:

from django.db import models
from django.db.models.query import QuerySet

class SoftDeletionQuerySet(QuerySet):
    def delete(self):
        # Bulk delete bypasses individual objects' delete methods.
        return super(SoftDeletionQuerySet, self).update(alive=False)

    def hard_delete(self):
        return super(SoftDeletionQuerySet, self).delete()

    def alive(self):
        return self.filter(alive=True)

    def dead(self):
        return self.exclude(alive=True)

class SoftDeletionManager(models.Manager):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.alive_only = kwargs.pop('alive_only', True)
        super(SoftDeletionManager, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    def get_queryset(self):
        if self.alive_only:
            return SoftDeletionQuerySet(self.model).filter(alive=True)
        return SoftDeletionQuerySet(self.model)

    def hard_delete(self):
        return self.get_queryset().hard_delete()

class SoftDeletionModel(models.Model):
    alive = models.BooleanField(default=True)

    objects = SoftDeletionManager()
    all_objects = SoftDeletionManager(alive_only=False)

    class Meta:
        abstract = True

    def delete(self):
        self.alive = False

    def hard_delete(self):
        super(SoftDeletionModel, self).delete()

This approach is straightforward and readable, and for nearly two years it worked well for us at Hearsay Social. However, it inevitably leads to data corruption.

The problem is simple: using a Boolean to store deletion status makes it impossible to enforce uniqueness constraints in your database. Let’s say you’re storing user records which should have unique email addresses; with this soft-deletion scheme, you can only have one active record for Including deletion status in your constraint lets you keep both a soft-deleted and an active record with the same email address, but then you’re out of luck—any attempt to delete another record for Betty will throw an IntegrityError. Luckily, there’s a better way.

The Null Solution

At the database level, there’s a straightforward solution to this problem (though I didn’t learn about it until a few months ago): store soft-deleted records with nulls in the alive column. As mandated by the ANSI SQL standard, MySQL, Postgres, and SQLite treat each null as a unique snowflake.

However, creating a Django field with this behavior is a little tricky because we want to forbid False values in the database (allowing only True and NULL). Here’s what I came up with:

from django.db import models

class LiveField(models.Field):
    '''Similar to a BooleanField, but stores False as NULL.

    description = 'Soft-deletion status'
    __metaclass__ = models.SubfieldBase

    def __init__(self):
        super(LiveField, self).__init__(default=True, null=True)

    def get_internal_type(self):
        # Create DB column as though for a NullBooleanField.
        return 'NullBooleanField'

    def get_prep_value(self, value):
        # Convert in-Python value to value we'll store in DB
        if value:
            return 1
        return None

    def to_python(self, value):
        # Misleading name, since type coercion also occurs when
        # assigning a value to the field in Python.
        return bool(value)

    def get_prep_lookup(self, lookup_type, value):
        # Filters with .alive=False won't work, so
        # raise a helpful exception instead.
        if lookup_type == 'exact' and not value:
            msg = ("%(model)s doesn't support filters with "
                "%(field)s=False. Use a filter with "
                "%(field)s=None or an exclude with "
                "%(field)s=True instead.")
            raise TypeError(msg % {
                'model': self.model.__name__,

        return super(LiveField, self).get_prep_lookup(lookup_type, value)

This is a drop-in replacement for Django’s stock BooleanField in the abstract model above, but under the covers it stores falsy values as nulls. At Hearsay, we just finished migrating all our models to use LiveField, and it’s been a huge help already—having the option to simultaneously support soft-deletion and uniqueness constraints keeps our application code and our data clean.

Curious how to test your shiny new soft-deletion field? Check out my post on testing custom Django fields for some tips, or check out the actual test setup on GitHub.